Problem transformation: A definition


How problem transformation differs from problem solving

Problem transformation in action

Selected quotes about problems

Problem transformation services

Problem transformation: A definition

Problem transformation is a way of perceiving and responding to tough problems such that ambitious outcomes are achieved and the value creation capability of the individual or collective is increased.
Transformation is a shift in one’s perception of what is possible.

Mo Cohen, conflict transformation exponent, executive coach and theatre director
Mo Cohen


Problem transformation as described here was first articulated by Jack Martin Leith with input from Alan Arnett, Mo Cohen and Angus Jenkinson. It is inspired by the conflict transformation approach originated by John Paul Lederach and Johan Galtung.

Wikipedia: Conflict Transformation

How problem transformation differs from problem solving

Whereas problem solving seeks to eradicate a troublesome state of affairs and restore the status quo, problem transformation shuns the status quo and creates a new reality — one in which the problem no longer exists, and one in which the organization increases its power to create the new. Creating this new reality requires a shift in perception, to seeing possibility where others see limitation.

Problem transformation is a generative approach. Generativity is a term coined by Erik Erikson, a psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on the psychological development of human beings. Generative individuals, workgroups and organizations shun the status quo and show disdain for mediocrity, seeking instead to create things that improve people’s lives and make the world a better place.

Read more about Generativity vs. Stagnation, the seventh stage of psychosocial development

Problem transformation is particularly suited to situations where:

  • High levels of complexity, ambiguity and uncertainty are present.
  • There are multiple stakeholders, each with an idiosyncratic perspective and agenda.
  • There is no agreement about the fundamental nature of the problem, and there is no common language for discussing it.
  • The desired outcome is disputed, unclear or unknown.
  • There is no consensus about what type of intervention (change management, internal comms, coaching, L&D, org design, conflict resolution, business model innovation etc.) is likely to be effective.

Problem transformation in action

At a conceptual level, problem transformation precedes disciplines, methodologies and techniques. At an operational level, each practitioner brings his or her own unique collection of theories, models and methods, selecting those that are best suited to the project and creating new ones when necessary.

This is the sequence of events in a typical problem transformation project:

Gain a common understanding of the current state of affairs — the problem-in-context.

Reach agreement among stakeholders about the desired state of affairs. Ask each of them: How will you know the problem has been resolved?

Reframe the problem as a value creation possibility and compose a vision of realised potential—a depiction of how the world (customers, other stakeholders and wider society) will be enriched when the problem no longer exists and the enterprise is deploying its value generation capability without constraint and living its purpose to the full. Depiction means an actual picture accompanied by vivid explanatory text, a compelling synopsis of the imagined scenario. Picture first, then words.

Identify critical constraints and enablers. Agree on a broad approach for removing the constraints and acquiring the enablers.

Strategy matrix
Design the intervention or programme of work such that it generates maximum value for its customers, other stakeholders and wider society.

Launch the intervention or programme of work.

Monitor progress throughout and provide whatever support, guidance and corrective action may be needed.

Conduct an after action review and harvest the learnings once the desired state of affairs has been achieved. Ask: To what extent are we now better equipped to bring the new into being? How can we best use this additional creative power?

The enterprise is now on its way to becoming a genuine learning organization, which means being better equipped to survive and prosper in a turbulent and unpredictable operating environment.

A successful intervention or programme of work is likely to spawn further problem transformation projects. Little by little, problem transformation practice will spread throughout the organization, and its power to create the new will gradually expand towards its full extent.

Selected quotes about problems

The conventional model of collaboration in business is to go to a lot of meetings to try to get agreement on five things:
What is our common purpose?
What is the problem?
What is the solution to the problem?
What is the plan to execute the solution?
Who needs to do what to execute the plan?
Answering these questions typically involves a delicate dance of managerial authority and employee adaptation. A boss may have a solution in mind, but could face potential downsides by enforcing it unilaterally. Those who disagree may drag their feet in implementing the plan or otherwise sabotage the team’s efforts. So instead, teams collaborate: A boss leads everyone to see the problem the same way (probably the way the boss does), and then to agree on a way forward.
But what if the people in the room are working at cross-purposes? What if they can’t even agree on what the problem is, much less how to solve it? What if there is low trust among them, and no one who can control the situation? What if the only thing people can agree on is that the situation is unacceptable and must be changed?

Source: How to Collaborate When You Don’t Have Consensus, by Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, on strategy+business
Adam Kahane. Photo credit: Móric van der Meer, Simon Meeuwspad 17, 7424 AR Deventer, Netherlands. Phone: +31 570 628 920
Photo credit: Móric van der Meer

A problem is only an avenue of approach we happen to have pursued, where we cannot see our way clear. Whilst a problem with a ready solution is not a problem at all but just a clear way forward, a problem without a solution is just a blind alley, a failed attempt to proceed a certain way. A problem is only a solution that we cannot get to work. Indeed, I have come to view all efforts at so-called “problem-solving” in practical affairs to be quite worthless endeavours. An unsolved problem, like an unanswered question, should be an invitation to go back and choose another problem instead, like asking a different question to get at what you are after when your first enquiry draws a blank. A problem that does not call for its own solution may best be regarded as but a first feeler; instead of trying to solve it, we could put out another feeler.

© 2000, 2018 Dr James Wilk. All Rights Reserved
James Wilk
Mental models often do not enable us to see what’s really possible in the world. Often times we build businesses, technologies or products and services based on assumptions borne from preexisting beliefs. Beliefs can very easily produce false assumptions, particularly about the markets in which we operate.
The meta model of the Hegelian Dialectic guides much of our thinking – (manufactured) problem, (staged) reaction, (perceived) solution. Typically we are taught or trained to think linearly, in a straight line. From there, we think we have to choose sides, ideas, beliefs, ideologies, what have you. False choices, or false dichotomies, perpetuate many of the problems we face in the world.
While problems can be very complex, our approaches to them and the ensuing solutions do not have to be¹.

Source: Gunther Sonnenfeld, a partner at Novena Capital
¹ Read more here: Breaking Free of the Mental Model that Stifles Real Progress, by Gunther Sonnenfeld, on Medium
Gunther Sonnenfeld
Large organizations face a stark choice: Develop a viable approach to innovation, or face a slow and agonizing descent to irrelevance. The most common approaches — focusing excessively on strategy or technology — don’t address the root cause: the need to quickly adapt to changes. To develop such a capacity, corporate leaders must learn how to harness distributed teams of risk tolerant employees to find, prioritize, and solve problems.

Source: The Future of Corporate Innovation, by William Treseder, a partner at BMNT, on Medium
William Treseder
If the answer was logical, we would have solved it already.

Rory Sutherland, Executive Creative Director, OgilvyOne
View source
Rory Sutherland
A Fortune 250 B2B company spent a quarter of a million dollars trying to solve the wrong problem. A new product line had failed, and the company believed the problem was either poor product delivery times or lack of effort by the sales force. After throwing millions at both problems, they finally realized what the real issue was: misaligned goals between marketing and sales.

Source: When Sales and Marketing Aren’t Aligned, Both Suffer, by Wendy Ritz, Michelle D. Steward, Felicia N. Morgan, and Joseph F. Hair Jr., on Harvard Business Review
Harvard Business Review logo
Problems are tough because they are complex in three ways.
They are dynamically complex, which means that cause and effect are far apart in space and time, and so are hard to grasp from firsthand experience.
They are generatively complex, which means that they are unfolding in unfamiliar and unpredictable ways.
And they are socially complex, which means that the people involved see things very differently, and so the problems become polarized and stuck.

Source: Solving Tough Problems, An Open Way of Talking, Listening, and Creating New Realities, by Adam Kahane
Adam Kahane
We have also come to realize that no problem ever exists in complete isolation. Every problem interacts with other problems and is therefore part of a set of interrelated problems, a system of problems. I choose to call such a system a mess. […] Furthermore, solutions to most problems produce other problems […] a financial problem, a maintenance problem, and conflict among family members for its use.

Russell Ackoff, cited here
Russell Ackoff. Photo credit: Wikipedia
Truly innovative organizations—not just the one-hit wonders, but those who can reproduce success over many years—don’t look for ideas but for problems to solve. A good problem leads to a sense of purpose and that’s where good ideas really come from.

Greg Satell | View source
Greg Satell
Marketers prefer precise answers that are wrong to imprecise answers that are right.

Bob Hoffman, The Ad Contrarian
Bob Hoffman
Problem-solving is taking actions to have something go away: the problem. While problem-solving has its place, as a persistent approach, it limits accomplishment. The elimination of a problem does not mean that the desired result can be created. As distinguished, solving a problem does not by design lead to a creation. Creating is taking action to bring into being that which does not yet exist: the desired outcome.

Robert Fritz, author of The Path of Least Resistance, in Structure: The Power and the Beauty
Robert Fritz
I want to pass along a piece of advice that Bill Clinton offered me a little over a decade ago.
Well, actually, when he said it, it felt less like advice and more like a direct order.
What he said was: “Turn toward the problems you see.”
It seemed kind of simple at the time, but the older I get, the more wisdom I see in this.
And that’s what I want to urge you to do today: turn toward the problems you see.
And don’t just turn toward them. Engage with them. Walk right up to them, look them in the eye … then look yourself in the eye and decide what you’re going to do about them.

Matt Damon | view source
Matt Damon wearing NASA insignia on left lapel

Problem transformation services

Currently, assistance with problem transformation as described on this page is only available from Canaveral, a problem transformation unit founded by Jack Martin Leith.

If you are looking a tough business problem in the eye and wondering if a problem transformation mission might be the most effective response, please contact Jack at Canaveral.